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The universe is defined as everything that exists. Everything in the universe is believed to be either matter or energy. The natural laws are the rules that govern the fundamental workings of the universe.

Physics is the science which describes the fundamental workings of physical reality, explaining natural phenomena ranging from behavior of atoms and molecules to the evolution of stars, galaxies, and the universe. Physics tries to explain matter, energy, space, and time at the most fundamental level.

Because physics is an experimental and mathematical science, and the results of an experiment must be stated unambiguously for all scientists to replicate, words and terminologies in physics must be precisely defined.

Realms of Physics

Classical physics comprises those branches of physics which study phenomena applicable to everyday life, and includes the following:

  • Mechanics: deals with motion (or equilibrium) of particles and bodies.
  • Thermodynamics: study of heat and its effect on matter.
  • Electromagnetism: studies electric and magnetic phenomena associated with charged and magnetic bodies.
  • Wave & Optics: study of waves, with special focus on light and its behavior as a wave.

Modern Physics comprises newer zones of enquiry which arose in the 20th century, dealing with phenomena outside the realm of everyday experience. It includes:

  • Relativity: delves into the science of how space and time are linked, totally at odds with how we view them as separate.
  • Quantum Mechanics: describes the structure and behavior of the microscopic world of atoms, where probability, instead of certainty, rules the roost.

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