High School | $$ | Set Theory | |||

Mathematics | Science |

# Mathematics

## Introduction

**Mathematics** is an ancient science which uses logical reasoning, counting, measuring and calculations to make sense of the real world. It a very pervasive subject which is used in its simple form in most of our daily activities. Mathematics is used by most other sciences for providing precision and accuracy to their results and conclusions.

Those involved in the study of mathematics and its applications are known as **mathematicians**.

## Branches of mathematics

One way of looking at mathematics is as two main groups – *pure math* and *applied math*. Pure math is the study of mathematics as a subject for its own sake, while applied math is the study of mathematics with the aim of applying it to solve real world problems in engineering, science and technology and business.

Another classification of mathematics divides it into subjects like *arithmetic*, *algebra*, *geometry*, *trigonometry* and *statistics*.

##### Arithmetic

The word "arithmetic" derives from the Greek word "arithmos" meaning "number." Arithmetic is the study of nature and properties of *numbers*, including the basic operations of *addition*, *subtraction*, *multiplication* and *division*, as well as raising *powers* and taking *roots*. These concepts are employed for calculations involving *fractions*, *percentages*, *ratios* and *proportions*.

##### Algebra

Often described as "arithmetic with letters," algebra (unlike arithmetic which deals with specific numbers) brings in the concepts of *variables* which expands the scope of arithmetic through the use of *equations*. It can be used for solving problems of much greater complexities than arithmetic can.

##### Geometry

The world "geometry" means "earth measurement" in Greek. It deals with *points*, *lines*, *surfaces*, *solids* and their relationships. Geometry precisely defines different types of figures and provides methods for constructing them. It not only gives a wealth of important facts about the figures, but also methods to proves them following simple lines of reasoning.

##### Trigonometry

Trigonometry is the study of triangles, angles and their relationships through the use of the three main *trigonometric functions* of ** sine**,

**and**

`cosine`

**.**

`tangent`

##### Statistics

Statistics deals with the study, classification and analysis of raw collection of data. Statistical techniques help find hidden meanings and significance, patterns and trends from the raw data.

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# List of References

*Algebra can be fun*, Moscow: Mir Publishers, 1979.

*Geometry for the Practical Worker*, 4th edn, NY: Van Nostrand's Reinhold Company Inc., 1982.

# Bibliography

*Britannica Student Library*, Ultimate Reference Suite, CD-ROM, Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008.

*Britannica Elementary Library*, Ultimate Reference Suite, CD-ROM, Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008.

*Britannica Student Library*, Ultimate Reference Suite, CD-ROM, Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008.

Mathematics | Science | ||||

High School | $$ | Set Theory |